Coating Substrates and Textiles: A Practical Guide to Coating and Laminating Technologies
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Formulations have been made user friendly and, as a result, polymer coatings have captured virtually the entire world market. Hard metallic coating materials were initially thought to be a good choice to resist abrasion.
However, an alternative approach employs non-metallic materials Iwai and Nambu, ; Lathabai et al. In order to counteract the detrimental effects of cavitation erosion and silt abrasion, the use of these coatings has been investigated by a number of researchers, both in laboratory tests and in service experiences. Zhang et al. From their work, they concluded that epoxy resin reinforced by synthetic corundum particles and castable polyether-based polyurethane rubber were the most resistant coatings to abrasion and the combined abrasion—cavitation damage, respectively.
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Chopra and Arya reported use of ceramic tiles aluminium-talc-clay in the Kaplan turbine Chilla Hydropower Project, India blade with epoxy adhesive to prevent erosion, but these tiles were washed away very soon due to high silt. Juliet et al. Wood has reported significant improvement in erosion protection from boron carbide coated on tungsten carbide by chemical vapour deposition CVD.
Farid Bensebaa, in Interface Science and Technology , Base and coating materials play a critical role in the overall technology—economy—environment scheme. About 15 billion tons of raw materials are extracted from the earth every year. There is an increasing demand with increasing cost for raw materials. The environmental impact for extraction, refining, manufacturing, and disposal of the final products are important. A greater awareness of more efficient processes can be gained by carefully studying the LCA of a product from extraction and processing to usage and disposal Fig.
LCA is a quantitative tool for balancing the economic prosperity and environmental impacts from the development of a new technology. In particular, careful analysis of inputs energy and materials and outputs products, by-products, and waste is important. This will help, for example, to identify the best material and the process steps. However, there are two major challenges. First, a system boundary definition is required.
Second, data inputs life cycle inventory for each process step are needed. Unfortunately, there are very few data available for energy requirements in NP-based product processes. This is particularly the case with NP manufacturing and integration. Figure 1.
Coating Substrates and Textiles
Simplified view of system boundary and main process steps of nanoparticle-based product life cycle analysis LCA. Besides the economic impact, there are also long-term consequences related to the ecosystem to be considered. Each step of the process gives rise to wastes that pollute the air we breathe and the water we drink.
With finite resources, effective utilization of raw materials and fossil energy is very important. Comparing current and alternative requirements for each cycle stage is thus critically important. LCA data of NP-based products should not be analyzed on absolute value.
Comparison with conventional processes with a well-defined system boundary is the best approach. Product disposal including recycling is also important to reduce raw material extraction. Furthermore, proper disposal reduces the potential environmental impact when it is land-filled. Materials have different degrees of recyclability and biodegradability. Event NPs are expected to have differences depending on their composition and structure.http://alexacmobil.com/components/vobybyq/pob-come-vedere-foto.php
Coated and Laminated Textiles Process and Application - Textile Learner
For example, some metals such as iron are easier to biodegrade because of their higher corrosion rate. These metal NPs could be easier to recycle given the higher surface-to-bulk ratio. However, other metals such as Pb are toxic and thus should be recycled at the end of their shelf life.
There are some additional complications associated with alloyed metals and composite materials. Many different coating materials can be employed to achieve low thermal emittance and solar control. The most common coatings for energy-efficient glazings make use of extremely thin metal layers, in particular silver-based, and are treated first.
In Section Consider first what happens when a metal is deposited onto glass or plastic by a common coating technique such as vacuum evaporation or sputter deposition! Figure It is found that the initial deposition creates tiny metallic nuclei on the substrate and that continued deposition makes these nuclei grow, which is expected to take place by diffusion of gold atoms over the glass surface and by direct impingement of such atoms.
Metallic conduction can now be measured along the film, and there is a concurrent onset infrared reflectance. Continued deposition decreases the voids between the metallic paths, and a uniform metal film may form eventually. Scanning electron micrographs for gold films prepared by sputter deposition onto glass to the shown equivalent thicknesses t eq. Gold appears bright and the uncoated parts of the substrate are dark. If this thin film is embedded between dielectric layers with properly adjusted thicknesses, its reflection can be very much diminished as a result of destructive optical interference, and there is a corresponding increase in the film's transmittance.
It follows that well-designed silver-based coatings can have high transmittance at short wavelengths and high reflectance at long wavelengths. The silver will tarnish rapidly if exposed to air, so it has to be employed in IGUs with inert gas between the glass panes. The left-hand panel in Figure Zhang, H.
Coated and Laminated Textiles Process and Application
As a coating material, particularly for existing OPC concrete structures in contact with corrosive fluids, AAM coatings must meet at least four requirements: suitable setting time, strong bonding with the substrate, low permeability and low shrinkage. The coating is expected to have sufficient bond strength after finally setting to resist the wave motions.
The setting time of AAM depends on the nature of the solid precursor, the type and concentration of activator and curing temperature. When metakaolin is mixed with slag to form blend solid materials, the setting time is significantly affected by the slag content.
The substitution of slag shortens the setting time of AAM pastes. The large reduction of setting time is due to the quick formation of calcium-containing aluminosilicate gels after the dissolution of slag in alkaline activation solution. The quick setting of alkali-activated slag AAS binders has been observed in many other conditions, such as high temperature Zhu and Yao, and low M s Aydin and Baradan, It should be noted that setting too quickly can also be an issue for engineering applications Pu, When fly ash is incorporated into the AAM systems, the setting time can also be changed.
Being prolonged or shortened will depend on the substitution ratio and particularly the nature of fly ash. For example, when the fly ash is of low-Ca usually Class F , the setting time will be prolonged Zhang et al. This is observed in the manufacturing of alkali-activated fly ash-based concretes, the fly ash containing high calcium content, generating very quick setting Diaz-Loya et al.
The setting time of AAM binders is significantly affected by reaction temperature. The temperature range chosen for study is very typical for subtropical areas, and the results suggest that this type of inorganic coating is applicable with relatively wide tolerance of temperature. The effects of reaction temperature on the setting time of AAM binders. Setting behaviour of fresh paste is an important engineering property for AAM to be used as protective coatings for marine concrete. On one hand, it needs a sufficient time for mixing and coating.
For a certain outdoor temperature range, it is possible to adjust the setting time into this window by changing the slag content, alkali concentration and M s Aydin and Baradan, ; Hu et al. In particular, it requires the coating layer to be strongly adhesive to the substrate after final setting to resist the scrub of seawater waves. The bond strength is in the range of 0. However, on-site inspection illustrated in Section Patterns of bond strength testing: a the sample for tension testing Zhu et al.
In fact, the force of seawater waves is in compression and shearing, rather than in tension. The assessments by compression testing may provide more useful information. Such a bonding is strong enough to resist wave impact in service. Generally, AAM binders have extremely low permeability because of their dense matrix and complex pore structures Zhang et al.
For those specimens cured by seawater, the permeability coefficient can be even lower, 0. More detailed information can be found in Chapter 9. Shrinkage could be one of the most challenging problems for the application of AAM binders and other alkali-activated materials.
The total shrinkage of cement-based materials includes two parts, namely autogenous shrinkage and drying shrinkage. The autogenous shrinkage of AAM binders is not high, even at high reaction temperatures, as determined by measuring the length change of AAM specimens in water Zhang et al. However, the drying shrinkage of AAM binders is large under low humidity conditions. The volume shrinkage of binders ranges from 0 under seawater curing to 0. Apparently environmental humidity is a key factor that affects the volume stability.
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