Electric light and power : giving the result of practical experience in central-station work
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Email address. Please enter a valid email address. Walmart Services. Get to Know Us. Customer Service. In The Spotlight. Shop Our Brands. All Rights Reserved. Fluorescent lighting systems also benefit from reduced flicker if adjacent fixtures are powered from different phases. Large rectifier systems may have three-phase inputs; the resulting DC current is easier to filter smooth than the output of a single-phase rectifier.
Such rectifiers may be used for battery charging, electrolysis processes such as aluminum production, or for operation of DC motors. An interesting example of a three-phase load is the electric arc furnace used in steelmaking and in refining of ores. In much of Europe stoves are designed for a three phase feed.
Usually the individual heating units are connected between phase and neutral to allow for connection to a single phase supply. In many areas of Europe, single phase power is the only source available. Occasionally the advantages of three-phase motors make it worthwhile to convert single-phase power to three phase. Small customers, such as residential or farm properties may not have access to a three-phase supply, or may not want to pay for the extra cost of a three-phase service, but may still wish to use three-phase equipment.
Such converters may also allow the frequency to be varied allowing speed control. Some locomotives are moving to multi-phase motors driven by such systems even though the incoming supply to a locomotive is nearly always either DC or single phase AC. Because single-phase power goes to zero at each moment that the voltage crosses zero but three-phase delivers power continuously, any such converter must have a way to store energy for the necessary fraction of a second.
One method for using three-phase equipment on a single-phase supply is with a rotary phase converter, essentially a three-phase motor with special starting arrangements and power factor correction that produces balanced three-phase voltages. When properly designed these rotary converters can allow satisfactory operation of three-phase equipment such as machine tools on a single phase supply.
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In such a device, the energy storage is performed by the mechanical inertia flywheel effect of the rotating components. An external flywheel is sometimes found on one or both ends of the shaft. A second method that was popular in the s and 50s was a method that was called the "transformer method". In that time period capacitors were more expensive relative to transformers. So an autotransformer was used to apply more power through fewer capacitors.
This method performs well and does have supporters, even today. The usage of the name transformer method separated it from another common method, the static converter, as both methods have no moving parts, which separates them from the rotary converters. Another method often attempted is with a device referred to as a static phase converter. This method will not work when sensitive circuitry is involved such as CNC devices, or in induction and rectifier type loads.
Some devices are made which create an imitation three-phase from three-wire single phase supplies. Many three-phase devices will run on this configuration, but at lower efficiency. Variable-frequency drives also known as solid-state inverters are used to provide precise speed and torque control of three phase motors.
Some models can be powered by a single phase supply. VFDs work by converting the supply voltage to DC and then converting the DC to a suitable three phase source for the motor. Digital phase converters are a recent development in phase converter technology that utilizes software in a powerful microprocessor to control solid state power switching components.
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This microprocessor, called a digital signal processor DSP , monitors the phase conversion process, continually adjusting the input and output modules of the converter to maintain balanced three-phase power under all load conditions. A polyphase system is means of distributing alternating current electrical power.
Components of a circuit
Polyphase systems have three or more energized electrical conductors carrying alternating currents with a definite time offset between the voltage waves in each conductor. Polyphase systems are particularly useful for transmitting power to electric motors. The most common example is the three-phase power system used for most industrial applications. In the very early days of commercial electric power, some installations used two phase four-wire systems for motors.
The chief advantage of these was that the winding configuration was the same as for a single-phase capacitor-start motor, and, by using a four-wire system, conceptually the phases were independent and easy to analyze with mathematical tools available at the time. Two-phase systems have been replaced with three-phase systems. A two-phase supply with 90 degrees between phases can be derived from a three-phase system using a Scott-connected transformer. A polyphase system must provide a defined direction of phase rotation, so mirror image voltages do not count towards the phase order.
A 3-wire system with two phase conductors degrees apart is still only single phase. Such systems are sometimes described as split phase. Polyphase power is particularly useful in AC motors, such as the induction motor, where it generates a rotating magnetic field. Nikola Tesla and Michail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the first practical induction motors using a rotating magnetic field - previously all commercial motors were DC, with expensive commutators, high-maintenance brushes, and characteristics unsuitable for operation on an alternating current network.
Polyphase motors are simple to construct, are self-starting and have little vibrations. The electrical grid was originally constructed so that electricity would flow from power providers to consumers. However, with the introduction of DER, power needs to flow both ways on the electric grid, because customers may have power sources such as solar panels. The smart grid would be an enhancement of the 20th century electrical grid, using two-way communications and distributed so-called intelligent devices.
Two-way flows of electricity and information could improve the delivery network. The infrastructure system is the energy, information, and communication infrastructure underlying of the smart grid that supports:. A smart grid would allow the power industry to observe and control parts of the system at higher resolution in time and space.
It would allow management of the grid on all time scales from high-frequency switching devices on a microsecond scale, to wind and solar output variations on a minute scale, to the future effects of the carbon emissions generated by power production on a decade scale. The management system is the subsystem in smart grid that provides advanced management and control services. Most of the existing works aim to improve energy efficiency, demand profile, utility, cost, and emission, based on the infrastructure by using optimization , machine learning , and game theory.
Within the advanced infrastructure framework of smart grid, more and more new management services and applications are expected to emerge and eventually revolutionize consumers' daily lives.
The protection system of a smart grid provides grid reliability analysis, failure protection, and security and privacy protection services. While the additional communication infrastructure of a smart grid provides additional protective and security mechanisms, it also presents a risk of external attack and internal failures. In a report on cyber security of smart grid technology first produced in , and later updated in , the US National Institute of Standards and Technology pointed out that the ability to collect more data about energy use from customer smart meters also raises major privacy concerns, since the information stored at the meter, which is potentially vulnerable to data breaches , can be mined for personal details about customers.
In the U. The objective is to enable utilities to better predict their needs, and in some cases involve consumers in a time-of-use tariff. Funds have also been allocated to develop more robust energy control technologies. As there is some resistance in the electric utility sector to the concepts of distributed generation with various renewable energy sources and microscale cogen units, several authors have warned that mass-scale grid defection [ definition needed ] is possible because consumers can produce electricity using off grid systems primarily made up of solar photovoltaic technology.
The Rocky Mountain Institute has proposed that there may be widescale grid defection.
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Due to the enormous capital outlays, utilities were a vertically integrated business throughout the 20th century owning the power generation , the transmission lines while also managing the bills commercialization. Presently, technological progress has enabled individuals and groups to take on the functions that used to be the sole domain of the utility. Adding to the shift is the impact of aging infrastructure on reliability, security and performance factors. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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For other uses, see Grid disambiguation. For the board game, see Power Grid. Interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. Most of the wide area synchronous grids of Europe are members of the European Transmission System Operators association. The Continental U.
https://promentripsi.tk High-voltage direct current interconnections in western Europe - red are existing links, green are under construction, and blue are proposed.