Military Reengineering Between the World Wars
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It may means up to theses before you found it. Military Reengineering Between the phrases present a relating Head and typographical security for single bodies. The Carden Loyd tankettes two-man vehicles with machine guns influenced the tankette concept through export and similar designs such as the Soviet T , Italian CV , German Panzer I and other copies. Eventually, by the s, British experiments and policy and their strategic situation led to a tank development programme with three main types of tank: light, cruiser, and infantry.
The Infantry tanks were intended to support dismounted infantry. The maximum speed requirement matched the walking pace of a rifleman, and the armour on these tanks was expected to be heavy enough to provide immunity to towed anti-tank guns. Armament had to be sufficient to suppress or destroy enemy machine gun positions and bunkers as well as enemy tanks. Cruiser tanks were to carry out the traditional cavalry roles of pursuit and exploitation, working relatively independently of the infantry.
This led to cruiser tank designs requiring greater speed. To achieve this they were lightly armoured, and tended to carry anti-tank armament. In practice both cruiser and infantry tanks entered the Second World War with the same gun. The light tanks were tasked with reconnaissance and constabulary -type colonial roles, with cost the major design factor. An outstanding achievement of the British Army had been the creation of the Experimental Mechanised Force in the late s.
This was a small Brigade-sized unit developed to field-test the use of tanks and other vehicles. The unit pioneered the extensive use of radio to control widely separated small units. The unit was short-lived, however. However even though the British in the s continued the design and development of tanks themselves, the Germans began to further develop tank strategy and incorporate them into their tactical employment more than the British.
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This doctrine of deployment led armies to equip their tanks with radios, to provide unmatched command and control, Germany along with the USSR also led the way with welding, although the US followed closely. Riveting and bolting remained in use in British designs. Infantry tanks were a continuation of the Great War tanks, heavily armoured and designed to accompany an advancing infantry unit so were very slow. Once the infantry tanks had punched through an enemy line, lighter and faster cruiser tanks would be let loose to disrupt supply lines.
The main problem with this strategy however, was that the British infantry tanks were just too slow and the cruisers of the time were vulnerable, and often mechanically unreliable. Come , most of the British armour had been abandoned in France when the Expeditionary Force evacuated from Dunkirk, but this encouraged new designs.
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By the end of the war the increase in speed of the infantry tanks, and the increased armour of the cruisers, meant that there was little difference between the two classes of British tank. However, the British had to quickly build more reliable and more heavily armoured designs from the experienced gained in the early battles or acquire US designs to meet the needs.
At the start of the war most British tanks were equipped with 2-pounder 40mm guns which were able to penetrate contemporary German armour. The trend towards bigger guns and thicker armor which resulted in heavier tanks, made itself felt as the second World War progressed, and some tanks began to show weakness' in design. Medium tanks of weighed around 20 tons. Also if the tank's gun was to be used to engage both unarmoured and armoured targets, then it needed to be as large and powerful as possible, making one large gun with an all-round field of fire vital.
Also, mounting the gun in a turret ensured that the tank could fire from behind some cover. Hull-mounted guns required that most of the vehicle be exposed to enemy fire. Multiple-turreted or multi-gun designs such as the British A9 Cruiser Mk I slowly became less common. British tanks armament and use in the battles also had to change as German Blitzkrieg tactics and doctrine shifted towards faster medium and heavy tanks fighting large multi-tank battles, with the role of the infantry tank in assaults taken by simpler self-propelled artillery.
In British practice, the main armament of the infantry tank went in three phases. The pre-Dunkirk British Army Matilda I had only a single machine gun , a compromise forced by the low cost to which they had been built. The Matilda II gained a capable anti-tank capacity for its time, with the 40mm 2 pounder , but these were only issued with solid-shot i. The follow-up gun to the 2pdr was already in development but the need to rapidly replace the losses in France delayed its production.
Eventually 6-pounder 57mm guns were put into the British tanks, and these could deal with pretty much anything but head on attacks on the German Tiger and Panther tanks - thanks to their special armour piercing rounds. As the war progressed many British tanks were equipped with 75mm guns from American Sherman tanks. These had better performance using high explosive or smoke ammunition, but could not match the 6-pounder against armour.
Then the pounder The British Mark I was the world's first combat tank, entering service in August , and first used in action on the morning of 15 September It was developed to be able to cross trenches, resist small-arms fire, travel over difficult terrain, carry supplies, and be able to capture fortified enemy positions.
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They were used to cut through barbed wire to clear the way for infantry, and were even driven through houses to destroy machine gunner's emplacements. The Mk IV incorporated thicker armour to resist German armour-piercing bullets. It was first used in the Battle of Hamel on 4 July when 60 tanks contributed to a successful assault by Australian units on the German lines. Because of technical troubles the Mark VII, almost identical to Mks I to V, had only three produced out of an order for 74 when war ended.
It did not see combat in the war but was used and upgraded until the s when given to Canada for training.
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Thirty-four were completed, but none saw service. One was experimentally equipped as an armoured ambulance, and another rebuilt as an amphibious tank by the staff of the test base at Dollis Hill. The Mark X, a further improvement on the Mk V, was planned but never built. It was intended to complement the slower British heavy tanks by using its relative mobility and speed in exploiting any break in the enemy lines. Around tanks penetrated almost six miles on a 7-mile front. This was their first large-scale deployment in combat. Unfortunately, success was not complete because the infantry failed to exploit and secure the tanks' gains.
The British scored another victory the following year, on 8 August , with tanks in the Amiens salient. The German response to the Cambrai assault was to develop its own armored program. Soon the massive A7V appeared. The A7V was a clumsy monster, weighing 30 tons with a crew of eighteen. By the end of the war, only twenty had been built. Although other tanks were on the drawing board, material shortages limited the German tank corps to these A7Vs and some captured Mark IVs.
The A7V would be involved in the first tank vs.
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Parallel to the British development, France designed its own tanks. The later Renault FT was the first operational tank with a "modern" configuration: a revolving turret on top and an engine compartment in the back; it would be the most numerous tank of the war. A last development was the superheavy Char 2C , the largest tank ever built, be it some years after the armistice.