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This is very important in that practitioners may wish to place greater emphasis on the perception of physical fitness, changes in BMI, and improving BI, when trying to increase PA and its consequences, such as SE. These variables can be measured and compared across different times of PA interventions. The entire study has been performed without external funding. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat v. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat.
Published online Oct Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: physical activity, self-esteem, physical fitness, body image, adults. Introduction Physical activity PA is defined as any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles that results in a substantial increase in energy expenditure over resting levels.
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The following three hypotheses were tested in the present study: First, based on the literature presented above, 11 , 12 we anticipated that participants who report higher PA levels would also have higher SE Hypothesis 1. Methods Participants A total of persons aged 20—60 years were selected through stratified cluster sampling of the staff and teachers of the University of Tabriz Tabriz, Iran.
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Procedure The participants received general information about the main goals of the study and were informed of the voluntary basis of their participation and anonymity of data handling. Materials and measures Sociodemographic and anthropometric data A sociodemographic and anthropometric questionnaire covered age, educational level, health and marital status, number of children, weight, and height.
Self-reported PA Due to limitations of taking PA questionnaires devised in developed countries and using them in the different cultural context of developing countries, 44 we used a locally constructed PA questionnaire confirmed by Bahram, Shafizadeh, and Sanatkaran in order to have good content and face validity as well as good internal reliability. Statistical analysis First, descriptive statistics were calculated.
Results Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics Table 1 gives the sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics of the present sample. Open in a separate window. Descriptive statistics of the main study variables Table 2 gives the descriptive statistics for the study variables. Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the main study variables.
Bivariate correlations between the main study variables Table 3 provides the bivariate correlations between the study variables.
Table 3 Zero-order correlations between the main study variables. Variable 1 2 3 4 1.
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PPF 0. Figure 1. Table 4 Goodness-of-fit indices for the models tested.
Table 5 Decomposition of effects from the path analysis. Two hypotheses were formulated and these are now considered in turn. Conclusion Among a sample of adult university staff members, increased PA influenced SE directly and indirectly. Footnotes Disclosure All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this work. References 1. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research.
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Mexican American female adolescent selfesteem: the effect of body image, exercise behaviour and body fatness. Hispanic J Behav Sci. Gruber J. Physical activity and self esteem development in children: a meta-analysis. In: Stull G, Eckern H, editors. Effects of Physical Activity on Children. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents.
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Walters S, Martin JE. Does aerobic exercise really enhance self-esteem in children? A prospective evaluation in 3rd-5th graders. J Sport Behav. Can exercise improve self- esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.